Prior to 1973, mobile telephony was limited to phones installed in cars and other vehicles. Motorola was the first company to produce a handheld mobile phone. On April 3, 1973, Martin Cooper, a Motorola researcher and executive, made the first mobile telephone call from handheld subscriber equipment, placing a call to Dr. Joel S. Engel of Bell Labs, his rival. The prototype handheld phone used by Dr. Cooper weighed 1.1 kilograms (2.4 lb) and measured 23 by 13 by 4.5 centimetres (9.1 by 5.1 by 1.8 in). The prototype offered a talk time of just 30 minutes and took 10 hours to re-charge.
Before devices were now referred to as cellphones or mobile phones, there were several precursors. In 1908, Professor Albert Jahnke and the Oakland Transcontinental Telephone and Airpower Company claimed to have developed a wireless telephone. They were accused of fraud and the charges were later canceled, but they did not appear to continue production. Starting in 1918, the German railroad system tested wireless telephones on military trains between Berlin and Zossen. In 1924, the public trial began with a telephone connection on the train between Berlin and Hamburg. In 1925, the Zugtelephonie AG company was established to supply train telephony equipment and, in 1926, telephone services on the Deutsche Reichsbahn train and German postal services on routes between Hamburg and Berlin were approved and offered to first-class travelers.
John F. Mitchell, Motorola’s chief of portable communication products and Cooper’s boss in 1973, played a key role in advancing the development of handheld mobile telephone equipment. Mitchell failed to push Motorola into developing wireless communication products that would be small enough to use anywhere and participated in the design of the cellular phone.
As a result of Dr. Cooper’s public test call using the prototype phone, it would take another ten years for his first commercial sale. The first phone for the public was the Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. This first phone was very different from today’s phones. Unlike modern phones that weigh just 4 ounces, the DynaTAC 8000X weighs 2.5 pounds. This, with its size of 13 x 1.75 x 3.5 inches, earned this first cell phone the nickname “Brick”. The size and weight of the phone are not the only features that differ from modern slim phones. The talk time on the original phone usually lasted only half an hour and the cost was $ 3995. This cost did not include the cost of operation, which involved monthly fees and per-minute fees.
The first rocking phone was also launched by Motorola, several years later, in 1989. It was also the first phone small enough to fit in his pocket. Part of the reason for the reduced size was the placement of material in the open or closed phone section. In 1992, the Motorola International 3200, the first mobile phone with 2G technology. In 1997, Philips introduced one of the first attempts to use a smartphone called Synergy. It allowed users to access the Internet, faxes and e-mails. The same year, Nokia launched the Nokia 9000 Communicator, with Web access, a QWERTY keyboard and an LCD screen. The external antenna that was a basic function was no longer visible on the Nokia 8810, released in 1998. It was the first phone without external antenna, which made mobile phones easier to handle and more attractive. More and more standard features have begun to appear each year. In 1999, Nokia messaging became possible with the release of the Nokia 3210. In 1999, GPS navigation was also integrated on a phone and WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) was integrated for the first time on a mobile phone. Cameras were added to cell phone technology in 2000 with Sharp’s J-SH04; However, the first camera phone to be sold in the United States came from Sanyo. In 2002, several different PDAs started adding telephone support. The Apple iPhone was introduced in 2007. This smart phone revolutionized the mobile phone with a touch screen.